You're probably familiar with the Biceps Brachii, most commonly referred to as the Biceps. Flexion (bending) of the elbow joint is produced by the muscle in the front of your arm. However, you may be unaware of its possible connection to your shoulder pain. 

What are the biceps? 

As the name itself suggests, the muscle is split into two parts: 
Biceps short head 
Biceps long head 
Image of Biceps Brachii
The biceps long head attaches just above the shoulder joint and therefore participates in shoulder movement, including flexion. This is the motion of raising your arm in front of you. This also implies that biceps long head pain can manifest as shoulder pain. In order to determine if your biceps are contributing to your shoulder pain, your therapist may administer tests like the Speed's Test
Below, you can see how the bicipital groove protects and guides the long head of the biceps on its path up to the shoulder. Moving the shoulder is a result of the long head of the biceps muscle, which can be seen here as it rises over the shoulder joint. 
The long head of the biceps tendon rests within this groove, which your therapist may palpate when feeling around your shoulder to examine for any reproduction of symptoms and confirm the involvement of the biceps in your shoulder pain. 

What causes biceps tendinopathy? 

There are a lot of factors that might lead to biceps tendinopathy, including rapid increases in activity, higher workloads, and prolonged (rounded) shoulders. When you exercise with rounded shoulders, you put more pressure on the front of your shoulder rather than the rear. 
Lifting, pulling, reaching, or throwing repeatedly can lead to biceps tendinopathy or even tears of the upper biceps tendon. 

How do you treat it? 

The primary goal of most rehabilitation programmes will be to lessen the strain placed on the tendon by limiting or altering activity as much as possible (i.e. use the other arm to walk the dog or pour the kettle). 
The next step is a progressive tendon loading workout regimen designed to a) decrease your level of discomfort and b) increase your strength. The tendons are the connective tissue between bones that bear weight and store energy to assist movement. This is something we shouldn't overlook. We must gradually reintroduce it. 
Three crucial postural muscles for good health and effective shoulder function are the upper trapezius, lower trapezius, and serratus anterior. Speak to your therapist or strength and conditioning coach for specific exercises to work these muscles. 
If inflammation is present, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) could be beneficial. 
It's important that you learn as much as possible about your health status. The most obvious reason why people don't go through with their treatment is because they don't see the point in it. 
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